Jul 18

Frame Relay Switching

Posted by Alex Juncu

Frame Relay is still very much a popular subject in exams, labs and in the real networks.

Any lab with topologies that run different protocols over FR must start with the layer 2 configuration of the Frame Relay switched network. FR Topologies like full mesh or hub and spoke require a Frame Relay Switch. A FR Switch is a normal router but specifically configured to do Frame Relay switching.

First of all, we need to tell the router to start switching Frame Relay traffic. From global configuration mode we need to issue the frame-relay switching command.

Then, on the interfaces to Frame Relay clients, we need to start sending keepalives (LMIs) by configuring the interface as DCE with the frame-relay intf-type dce command.

The last thing that the FR Switch needs to do is to route DLCI on the virtual cicuits. This is done to tell an interface where to put a received frame with a DLCI. The frame will be put on another interface with another DLCI.¬† The configuration is done per interface with the frame-relay route command. The command requires that you specify the incoming¬† DLCI, on which the switching decision will be maide, the outgoing interface, and the DLCI with which the frame will be sent (”freame-relay route IN_DLCI OUT_INT OUT_DLCI”).

If Inverse ARP is not disabled on the FR Switch, no DLCI-IP mappings will be required.

Topology:

fr_sw

Configuration:

R1(config)#int s0/0
R1(config-if)#no shut
R1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R1(config-if)#clock rate 128000
R1(config-if)#ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0

R2(config)#int s0/0
R2(config-if)#no shut
R2(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R2(config-if)#clock rate 128000
R2(config-if)#ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0

FR-Sw(config)#frame-relay switching
FR-Sw(config)#int s0/1
FR-Sw(config-if)#no shut
FR-Sw(config-if)#clock rate 128000
FR-Sw(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
FR-Sw(config-if)#frame-relay intf-type dce
FR-Sw(config-if)#frame-relay route 102 interface s0/0 201
FR-Sw(config-if)#int s0/0
FR-Sw(config-if)#no shut
FR-Sw(config-if)#clock rate 128000
FR-Sw(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
FR-Sw(config-if)#frame-relay intf-type dce
FR-Sw(config-if)#frame-relay route 201 interface s0/1 102


Running Configurations:

R1:

interface Serial0/0
ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation frame-relay
clockrate 128000
no fair-queue
end

R2:

interface Serial0/0
ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0
encapsulation frame-relay
clockrate 128000
no fair-queue
end

FR-Sw:

interface Serial0/0
no ip address
encapsulation frame-relay
no fair-queue
frame-relay intf-type dce
frame-relay route 201 interface Serial0/1 102
end

interface Serial0/1
no ip address
encapsulation frame-relay
frame-relay intf-type dce
frame-relay route 102 interface Serial0/0 201
end

Jul 18

Back-to-back Frame Relay

Posted by Alex Juncu

This is the simplest use of a Frame Relay encapsulation and it’s between two routers, without a Frame Relay Switch. PPP or HDLC would make more sense to use in these types of links, but it is useful in labs.

In a back-to-back scenario is important to remember what the FR Switch should be doing: being the DCE and sending the keepalives to maintain the layer 2 link to the client router. Because of the fact that no FR Switch is present, the lack of keepalives being sent must be ignored using the “no keepalive” command. Also, Inverse ARP won’t work, so manual IP-DLCI mapping will be needed.

The FR Switch should be the one doing swapping of DLCIs on the network so the frames arrive at their destination with the correctly mapped DLCIs. In this case, we will need to have the same DLCI set in the manual mapping so the routers match entries in the mappings.

The topology:

fr_b2b

Configuration:

R1(config)#int s0/1
R1(config-if)#no shut
R1(config-if)#clock rate 128000
R1(config-if)#ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
R1(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R1(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 10.1.2.2 42
R1(config-if)#no keepalive

R2(config)#int s0/1
R2(config-if)#no shut
R2(config-if)#clock rate 128000
R2(config-if)#ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0
R2(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay
R2(config-if)#frame-relay map ip 10.1.2.1 42
R2(config-if)#no keepalive

Running configurations:

R1:

interface Serial0/1
ip address 10.1.2.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation frame-relay
no keepalive
clockrate 128000
frame-relay map ip 10.1.2.2 42
end

R2:

interface Serial0/1
ip address 10.1.2.2 255.255.255.0
encapsulation frame-relay
no keepalive
frame-relay map ip 10.1.2.1 42
end